Nutrition begins in the womb and continues until death. Adequate and balanced nutrition is necessary for human growth, development, healthy, and productivity. Individuals in daily life; need daily calories that vary according to age, gender, job, genetic characteristics, and disease status. In order to maintain a healthy life, the calories consumed and the calories spent must be kept in balance. If the daily intake of calories is more than the calories consumed, the calories that cannot be consumed are stored as fat in the body and cause obesity. Obesity is defined by the World Health Organization as excessive accumulation of fat in the body to the extent that it impairs health. As can be understood, obesity; is accepted as a disease that affects the quality and duration of life negatively, which occurs as a result of the calories taken from food is more than the calories consumed and the excess energy being stored as fat in the body (20% or more).
Early diagnosis of obesity symptoms is very important in terms of treatment. The same symptoms are seen in people with many obesity diseases. Among these symptoms;
- Sleeping disorders
- Excessive sweating
- Breathing problem
- Increase in the desire to eat
- Fatigue quickly
- Swelling in the feet
- Back pains
- There is increased fat in the abdomen and waist area.
Excessive and unbalanced nutrition are important factors. In addition, developments in today’s technology have made life easier, but have significantly limited daily movements. Insufficient physical activity, genetic, environmental, socio-cultural, and psychological factors, and many interrelated factors cause obesity.
The most important step in the treatment of obesity is diet and exercise therapy. The daily calorie amount that the person evaluated by the dietitian should take is revealed and an eating program is prepared. A person can lose weight with a diet, but as many overweight people experience, when they stop the diet and switch to a normal eating pattern, they regain the same weight or even more. In order not to gain the weight back, he should create a new diet. He must abandon his old habits.
It is the second most important remedy for weight loss. A weight loss program that does not include exercise is unthinkable and is unlikely to be successful. Exercise alone has been shown to result in moderate weight loss. It has been shown that people who exercise regularly have a high metabolic rate during rest. The energy-consuming effect of exercise continues not only during the movement but also after the end of the exercise. However, in a person who wants to lose excess weight, exercise alone is not enough to reach the desired weight. It is the most effective method for maintaining this order after reaching the desired weight.
The drugs used; must be reliable in terms of health, must be approved by the ministry, have a causal effect, has no significant side effects, and must not be addictive. Obesity medications can be used in addition to diet and exercise therapy. Since there are many deaths due to unconscious drug use today, it is of great importance that such drugs should be used under the advice and control of a physician.
Obesity in Children
Obesity, which is becoming more and more widespread, has affected children as well as adults. The fact that 16.3% of children aged 2-19 in the world are obese and this number is increasing day by day has also become a public health problem. In order to prevent this increasing data, children must first be under parental control. If the child is heavier than his peers and the body mass index is higher than it should be, a specialist doctor should be consulted. Early treatment in children is very important to prevent future diseases. In this process, parents should support their children in regulating their eating habits and encourage them to engage in physical activity.
Obesity is among the diseases with the highest incidence in the world. Because of obesity-induced hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, and similar diseases, the life expectancy of obese patients is approximately 15 years shorter than normal individuals. Obesity is also a risk factor for cancer types such as colorectal cancers, and breast and prostate cancer. Therefore, the balance between healthy nutrition and obesity should be well maintained. In addition to the regulation of nutrition and activity habits, the patient’s family, especially his environment, should be informed about this issue. In order to achieve successful results in obesity, which is a difficult process, the determination of the person is important. Getting information about obesity from specialist doctors and keeping it under constant control during this process will positively affect the treatment.