Oculoplastic or oculoplastic surgery is a term used to denote a variety of procedures involving the eyelids, eyebrows, eyeballs, tear ducts, and face. The branch, whose real name is an ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery, covers cosmetic interventions as well as medically necessary interventions, and sometimes it can be both. Oculoplastic literally refers to a wide variety of procedures, from correcting droopy eyelids to tear duct obstruction, eye stealing, and prosthetics. These procedures can be used to rejuvenate or reconstruct the eye and related structures. One of the most common oculoplastic procedures is blepharoplasty, also known as eyelid aesthetics. This procedure reduces the drooping appearance that comes with age by removing excess skin from the eyelid. A brow lift can also be added to this surgery. Most oculoplastic procedures are done on an outpatient basis and are performed on people of all ages. Tumor formations in and around the eye are also included in the application area of oculoplastic.
How is oculoplastic surgery done?
Oculoplastic includes a number of different techniques, regardless of the specific operation. In addition to cosmetic methods such as Botox injections, fat removal, and blepharoplasty, it is applied with different methods such as orbital surgery and canal occlusion. Techniques that vary from patient to patient and according to the problem are used.
In which diseases are oculoplastic procedures applied?
Most oculoplastic procedures are done on an outpatient basis and are performed on people of all ages. Oculoplasty includes:
- Ptosis: It means droopy eyelid. A droopy upper eyelid can also affect vision by narrowing the visual field. It also has negative cosmetic effects. Ptosis correction is carried out by various surgical procedures. The best option for the patient should be decided after consultation with the oculoplastic surgeon.
- Blepharoplasty: Sagging and bagging of the eyelid skin gives the face a tired and aged look. The blepharoplasty procedure rejuvenates the face and restores youth. It is applied on both the upper and lower eyelids. While this term refers to the removal of sagging and loosening skin on the upper eyelid, it refers to the correction of under-eye bags on the lower eyelid and the removal of excess skin around the eyes.
- Entropion: It refers to the eyelids folded inward towards the eye. Entropion is a condition in which an eyelid turns inward, rubs against the eye, reddens the eye, irritates the cornea, and becomes sensitive to light and wind. This situation can be optimally corrected by eyelid surgery.
- Ectropion: It is the condition of the eyelids turning outward from the eye. This condition can expose the cornea of the eye and cause dryness.
- Thyroid eye disease: In this disease, the body sees the thyroid tissue as foreign and attacks it while also targeting the eye tissues. There are active and inactive periods in the disease. As a result of swelling of the muscles and fats in the back of the eyes, prominence, redness, and edema of the lids can be seen. Double vision and opening of the lids and even vision loss may occur. After appropriate tests, intravenous cortisone therapy can be initiated during the active period. Surgery is required in inactive and sight-threatening situations.
- Eyelid retraction: It can affect the upper or lower eyelid. Eyelid retraction occurs when the eyelid is pulled too far above the eyeball on the upper eyelid and too low on the lower eyelid. Common causes of eyelid retraction include thyroid eye disease, trauma, or previous surgery on the eyelids.
Cancer and other growths: Tumors or lesions in or around the eye can be treated with oculoplastic methods. At this point, early diagnosis and treatment can save life and vision.
- Blocked tear ducts: Usually found in infants, but can also occur in adults from infection, trauma, or tumors. While the problem is mostly resolved with probing and/or tube insertion in children, tube insertion and/or channel opening surgery is required in adults.
- Injuries: Physical or chemical injuries can pose a serious threat to vision if not treated in a timely manner.
As with any surgery, there are risks in eye surgery as well. However, the risks are low in surgeries performed in the right centers by a good ophthalmologist. However, the risks can be listed as follows: bleeding, pain, infection, and inability to close the eye.
Small eyelid tears can be treated locally. But larger injuries require immediate stitches and reconstruction. It may be necessary to place the eyelid edges properly and stitch the eyelid in layers. This is where oculoplastic surgery comes into play. In major eye injuries, restoring the structures that make up the skeleton of the lower and upper eyelids is extremely important to restore normal eyelid structure and function. Injuries to the inner part of the eyelids may be accompanied by damage and cuts in the tear duct. In this case, the tube should be attached and stitched to the end. Orbital injuries can range from orbital hematomas to orbital bone fractures. Treatment of orbital fractures depends on the type of fracture. The timing of the repair is very important. Fractures with muscle compression require immediate correction. Repair of fractures is done with various materials.
No, oculoplastic surgery is not just about plastic surgery. All kinds of functional problems affecting the eye, outside the eyeball, namely the orbital and its muscle and fat tissues, lacrimal glands and ducts, and eyelids are among the intervention areas of oculoplastic surgery.