Spinal surgery is the spine and spinal cord surgery. The spine protects the spinal cord, forms the support point of the body, and enables us to stand, walk and move. The spine, which is the main pillar of the human body, consists of bone structures called vertebrae or vertebrae. Each vertebra is in contact with the previous and next vertebra, and strong muscle and connective tissues serve as support for this structure.
Fusion is the immobilization of one or more vertebrae, meaning fusion. The aim of spine fusion surgery is to make the vertebrae immobile and united by using bone fragments taken from the human body or artificial bone materials obtained with developing technology. Thus, the vertebrae become a whole month after the operation.
Fusion Surgery in the Spine
There are various spinal diseases that will require the surgeon to decide on fusion. Fusion is necessary for spinal fractures, deformities of the spine, painful conditions in which the spine moves excessively, and in some neck hernias since there is a tumor or infection in the spine. Spine fracture is the least discussed requirement of fusion surgery. Not every spine fracture requires surgery. However, in cases where surgery is required for many different reasons, such as compression on the spinal cord, nerve damage, or deterioration of the anatomical integrity of the spine, fusion surgery is required for the union of the relevant region. There is also a need for fusion in diseases with structural deformity of the spine. The surgeon can also decide on fusion in cases such as recurrent lumbar hernia, previous spinal cord surgeries, degenerative diseases also called calcification in which the structural integrity of the spinal joints is impaired, spinal-spinal diseases in which the mechanical balance of the spine is disturbed, spinal-spinal diseases that require bone removal, spine tumor surgery, painful spine diseases.
There are many different surgical approaches. Basically, a bone is placed between the vertebrae in operations performed from the front, back, side, or several approaches together. An anterior approach to the neck region is used more frequently, while posterior fusion is used more frequently to the chest or waist region. The surgical approach varies according to the disease in which the fusion surgery will be performed.